As can be seen in the examples above, in-text citations for Instagram and other social media sources match the surname or organizational name of the author as shown in the reference, but they do not include the username. This allows the in-text citations to match the references but also to be grouped with other in-text citations for works by the same author s.
Hashtags may appear in the caption and thus in your reference; see first example above. But, to discuss hashtags more generally, describe them in the text of your paper. For more, see our post on citing hashtags in APA Style.
- Theses - APA citation style - Guides at University of Western Australia.
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Note: This post was edited after initial posting to update the highlight and profile references, which should include the retrieval date. A rose by any other name would smell as sweet, right? Readers often ask us questions about how to handle repeated surnames in references. For example, how do you cite a work where some or all of the authors have the same last name? What if you want to cite separate works by people who have the same last name—how do you avoid making it seem like they are the same person?
APA citation style: Theses
Read on to find out these answers. Nothing special is required when a surname is repeated within a reference. Write the in-text citation and reference list entry normally.
Sue, D. Understanding abnormal behavior 11th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
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Now imagine a surname is repeated in different references. When the first authors of multiple references have the same surname but different initials, include initials for the first authors in the in-text citations. Never include initials for second or subsequent authors in in-text citations. The reference list entries are written normally.
In the example below, note that although all three examples have an author named Jackson, only D. Jackson and M. Jackson are cited with initials in the text because the other Jackson is not first author. Jackson, D. Aesthetics and the psychotherapist's office. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74, — Jackson, M.
Face working memory deficits in developmental prosopagnosia: Tests of encoding limits and updating processes. Neuropsychologia, , 60— Nelson, B.
Theses/Dissertations - Citing and referencing - Library guides at Monash University
Attention bias modification reduces neural correlates of response monitoring. Biological Psychology, , — Note: Include initials in the in-text citations only to help the reader tell apart different people. If the name of one person is presented inconsistently across works e. See this post on inconsistent name formats for more. In the reference list entries, also include the full first names in square brackets after the initials. Never include bracketed names for second or subsequent authors in in-text citations or reference list entries. Green, L. Morphology and literacy: Getting our heads in the game.
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, — How many impulsivities? A discounting perspective. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 99, 3— For more on this topic, see the Publication Manual sections 6. Got more questions? Leave a comment below. In the Publication Manual and in many, many blog posts here, we refer to both references and citations. References appear at the end of a manuscript.
They follow a who — when — what — where format. For example:.
IEEE style contents: Examples
They appear a so you can give credit to your sources and b to provide a path for your readers to retrieve those sources and read them firsthand. Citations appear in the body of your paper and point your reader to your references. For that reason, we sometimes call them in-text citations.
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They are also sometimes called simply cites. Citations can appear in a paper in two ways:. As shown in the examples above, citations are almost always composed of an author surname or surnames and a date. The surname s that appear in a citation must exactly match those used in the reference.
Likewise, the year in the citation matches the year shown in the reference. When the reference has a more precise date, the in-text citation includes the year only. For example, compare the reference and the in-text citation for a tweet.
As noted above, most citations include author names; but, because some references have no author, their citations also have no author: When the reference includes no author, the citation includes the title or a short version of the title. Also, many types of legal references do not include author names. Do you add [ sic ] to the reference?
We recommend not doing that, because it may appear to be part of the reference title. Instead, we recommend using a footnote. First, know that typos in titles of published journal articles and book chapters are rare. If the article title really included a typo, explain in a footnote, if you want to ensure that your readers know that the mistake is not yours. Example article that published with a typo in the title explain in a footnote.
Hos, J. Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes. Milnes, G. Adolescent depression: The use of generative instruction to increase rational beliefs and decrease irrational beliefs and depressed mood. Unpublished M. May, B. A survey of radial velocities in the zodiacal dust cloud.