A small number of big corporations keep deteriorating the environment in India by producing plastic products in order to accumulate capitals. This whole process is called the second contradiction of capitalism. Moreover, companies can decide to do the spatial fix in order to solve the crises of capitalism. In a short term, the spatial fix seems to work because big companies no longer degrade the local environment.
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The problem is a location to which productions or markets are moved. Therefore, developing countries like India have all the side effects of the spatial fix, which is an inequality between developed and developing nations. Transformation of economic production system might be helpful, but it is not the effective strategy. Although the big corporations change their systems, they will produce lots of plastic products if consumers keep using a large amount of the products.
In comparison with political economic approach, market environmentalism also can explain plastic pollution in India. Market environmentalism considers environmental problems as the result of market failures caused by not factored environmental cost of plastic pollution into the price the. Read More. Words: - Pages: 5. Words: - Pages: 8.
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Essay on “Pollution” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes.
Create Flashcards. It is high time that all of us should know the harmful effects of air pollution and also evolve technology to control it. The rapid rate of industrialisation has resulted in more and more air pollution. Various industrial processes release almost all types of pollutants into the air. Some industries like cement, iron and steel, fertilizer, petrochemical etc. Acid ram has become a great threat to the environment. The use of solvents is increasing with the growing use of paints, spray, polish etc.
Due to the presence of hydrocarbons in these materials, air pollution is caused which is dangerous for health. Similarly, spray of pesticides in agriculture is also responsible for air pollution even in rural areas. Chemical reactions do not always continue to completion, so that in addition to the desired product, by -products occur, which on cost grounds are often released by the chemical industry into the atmosphere or discharged into the drainage system.
Extensive control is necessary, partly because the human sense of smell is very sensitive to substances emitted by chemical industries such as hydrogen sulphide and ercaptans , even when they are highly rarefied. To eliminate these substances, purification plants of very high degree of efficiency are required. Furthermore, the chemical reactions take place in many cases under very heavy pressure. For safety reasons the reaction apparatuses and accessories must therefore, be equipped with pressure relief facilities safety valves.
In the event of breakdowns, which can be fairly frequent in a chemical works, the noxious substances are released in relatively large quantities. The petroleum industry is characterized by the regular discharge of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds and of sulphur dioxide and fine dust. Crude oil imported form the oil-producing countries is processed in refineries into various petroleum products, in particular heating oil and gasoline.
In the refining process, the crude oil is heated and vaporized and then condensed again at various temperatures. In this way the varying fractions, from highly volatile gasoline to heavy heating oil, are separated. In the process, tarlike bitumen is left behind for further processing in its turn. In order to produce the energy needed to vaporize the crude oil, the distillation residues are used in the refineries as the main fuel. These residues contain large quantities of sulphur, which after combustion, is given off into the atmosphere in the form of sulphur dioxide.
In addition, according to where it comes from, the material consumed can contain larger or smaller quantities of fine dust, which is also given off with the flue gas.
Long and Short Essay on Pollution in English
The second group of components in air pollution by refineries are organic substances such as hydrocarbons. These are discharged in the main from various sources, at ground level, spread over the entire area of the works, such as storage tank, flanges, safety valves, vents, seals, settling tanks and torch flarges.
These organic gases and fumes are in some cases very pungent, and so can cause serious nuisance in the vicinity of the refinery. It is assumed at present that one-third of production losses by the petroleum industry pass into the atmosphere as hydrocarbons. Discharges into the environment also occur when finished products are loaded into vehicles and vessels for distribution.
Each time gasoline is loaded into a container or tanker for transport by land or sea, gas vapour will be discharged into the atmosphere with the expelled air to the amount of 1. The situation is very similar in the case of petro-chemistry. Petrochemical production plants are usually situated in close proximity to refineries, and in them the end products from the refineries are processed further.
The petrochemical plants also contain extensive pipeline systems and numerous valves and flanges through which hydrocarbons and other organic compounds are discharged. A good example of serious irreversible damages to the environment caused by an industrial product which was previously regarded as neutral in its effects is the spray gun, which is in increasing use today for a variety of purposes. When the spray gun is used, the propellants are released into the atmosphere.
Until recently it was believed that the compounds were so stable that they would not be absorbed or reduced by either plants, soil or water. They were consequently regarded as harmless. In , however, American scientists at the University of Michigan discovered that chlorofluorocarbons could cause serious disturbances in the environment. The gas rises into the stratosphere and damages the ozone belt surrounding the earth; the ozone belt intercepts a large part of the ionizing radiation coming in from outside and so reduces damage to the earth by this radiation. The two major air pollutants produced by industry and power stations are sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
Sulphur dioxide is the main pollutant emitted from power stations. Once in the air, sulphur dioxide mixes with moisture to form sulphuric acid, which will later fall as acid rain.
Nitrogen oxides are pollutants which are mainly associated with car exhausts, although some come from industry. Again, they mix with moisture in the atmosphere to form nitric acid, which then falls as acid rain.
Today, industries that emit air pollution must have chimneys or stacks which release the waste gases into the atmosphere at higher levels, thereby reducing the risk of ground level pollution. Power stations are now also required to reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide they give off by using specialised clean technology. Air pollution is the result of the combined effects of several pollutants. These pollutants are associated with each other and also react with other elements, therefore, it is difficult to categories them, but for proper understanding they can be divided into the following categories on the basis of their origin, nature, size, impact, etc.
According to Origin, particulate matter can be divided into two types, viz. The natural form of particulate matter is the result of volcanic dust and gases, mineral dust, sea-salt crystals.
Essay on Environmental Pollution
Another class of natural particulate matter is smoke from forest fires and grass fires. Living plants release pollens and spores into the air, these are organic compounds. From forest trees certain hydrocarbons called terpenes are also released into the atmosphere. Combustion of solid wastes is another source. Other kinds of matter introduced into the atmosphere are industrial chemicals, fly ash, refining fossil fuels, mining and smelting ores, as well as pollutants discharged through quarrying, farming activities, etc. Use of various types of solvents and also radio-active elements are the cause of air pollution created by man.
Another classification, according to Origin, is i primary, and ii secondary pollutants.